Distant Water Fleets: An Ecological, Economic and Social Assessment
Edited by Bonfil, R., Munro, G., Sumaila, U., Valtysson, H., Wright, M., Pitcher, T., Preikshot, D., Haggan, N. and Pauly, D.
Note: This report was scanned from a hard copy.
This report reviews the balance of costs and benefits of distant water fleets (DWFs) for coastal nations. It is based on selected case studies representative of a wide range of conditions: off Mauritania and Senegal, Northwestern Africa; off Namibia; off Iceland; in the North Atlantic waters between Iceland and Norway; around the Galapagos Islands and in the North Pacific 'Donut Hole' between Russia and Alaska. The analyses are based on catch and landings data of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), complemented with national and other data where available.
Two detailed evaluations were made. First, for Namibian fisheries, mass-balance simulations (ECOPATH and ECOSIM) of the upwelling ecosystem from which the catches originate, serves as basis for comparing economic scenarios with and without DWFs. The results show that the DWF can halve the potential earnings of home fisheries. Secondly, a rapid appraisal technique (RAPFISH) provides an ordination of relative status of West African DWFs and home fleets in ecological, economic, social and technological areas. In relation to similar fisheries that focus on small pelagics, the DWFs can reduce sustainability by 20%.
The overall conclusion of these analyses is that extended fisheries jurisdiction, which has radically altered the relationship between coastal states and DWF, provides a framework within which both coastal nations and DWF can jointly define the nature of their relationships. This can avoid the negative impacts of unregulated DWFs on coastal resources, documented in this report. For fishing grounds outside of EEZs, formal agreements, involving all potential players, are required to prevent the resources from being rapidly depleted.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Table of Contents
List of Exhibits
Acronyms and Abbreviations
1. Introduction (Ramon Bonfil et al.)
Project Direction and Management
2. Methodology (Ramon Bonfil et al.)
Ecological and Economic Modelling
Rapid Appraisal of Fisheries Sustainability
3. A Global Overview
Fishing Patterns of DWFs 1950-1994 (Ramon Bonfil)
Selected Case Studies of DWFs (Ramon Bonfil)
Case Study: DWFs off Mauritania and Senegal (Ramon Bonfil)
Boxed Case Study 1. Illegal Fishing in the Galapagos Islands (Ramon Bonfil et al.)
Case Study: Walleye Pollock and the North Pacific "Donut Hole" (Ramon Bonfil)
Case Study: Iceland and DWFs (Hreidar Valtysson)
Boxed Case Study 2. The Norwegian Spring-Spawning Herring (Hreidar Valtysson)
Case Study: Newfoundland Cod Fishery 1950-1992 (Miriam Wright)
Case Study: DWFs off Namibia (Ramon Bonfil)
4. Ecosystem / Economic Impacts (Ussif Rashid Sumaila)
Analysis of the Impacts of DWFs on Namibia
Implications for Namibian Fisheries
5. Status of West African Fleets (Tony Pitcher and David Preikshot)
Rapid Appraisal of Distant Water Fleet Fisheries Relative to Home Fleets Using the Rapfish Technique
6. DWFNs and Coastal States
Economic and Social Aspects of their Interactions (Gordon Munro)
Social Considerations (Nigel Haggan)
Concluding Remarks (Ramon Bonfil et al.)